Who makes federal laws? What are their different roles? What do they do? In this article, you will learn about the House of Representatives, the Senate, the Supreme Court, and the Conference committee. If you still have questions, you can read on. In this article, you will learn about the processes that go into making laws. Once you know what they do, you will be able to make an educated decision about the laws that govern your country.
House of Representatives
The U.S. House of Representatives is one of two chambers of Congress. It is the legislative branch of the federal government. The House has 435 voting representatives, which represents the population of all fifty states. During the 20th century, the House’s oversight responsibilities increased. Congress must deal with the diversity of federal activities, and executive agencies and program beneficiaries naturally resist congressional scrutiny. Fortunately, the House has kept up with these increasing responsibilities by increasing its staff and information support resources.
Each state has one representative in the House. Representatives are elected to two-year terms and represent the citizens of their state or congressional district. Representatives are apportioned according to population. Larger states have more representatives than small states. Representation by population is an important part of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787. The founders wanted a system of government that represented the population rather than the minority.
The House makes federal laws through a process known as legislative procedure. Each member of Congress can introduce a bill at any time during a session. The House clerk then enters the bill into the hopper, or the box on the House clerk’s desk, and assigns it a number. Each bill that originates in the House will be assigned a number, usually beginning with “H.R.” After being introduced, the bill is assigned to a committee of jurisdiction.
Legislation is not passed during the first committee markup. It goes to the full committee for full consideration. The committee staff reports the report on the bill, and a vote is taken. If a committee finds the bill to be unsuitable, it can be tabled until the next session. This procedure is repeated until the legislation is finally passed. This process requires a number of meetings. A bill may take a long time to move from committee to full House consideration.
Public prints are issued when a bill is passed by both chambers. The public print contains more copies than the engrossed version. Public prints often include the text of the House bill, as well as any amendments made by the Senate. The Senate orders public prints for appropriations bills, but occasionally orders them on other important bills. So, keep an eye out for them! If the Senate approves a bill, it sends it to the president for signature.
The Senate is a body of representatives in the U.S. Congress. The upper chamber is responsible for making federal laws. Each bill is referred to a committee for review. There are 17 House committees and 23 Senate committees, with each committee having many subcommittees. During their review, a bill is grouped into different policy areas. Then the committees assign it to a more detailed committee.
In addition to committee consideration, a bill may be amended after it is introduced. Once it is reported out of a committee, it becomes ready for a full Senate vote. Sponsors of a bill may request that amendments be made and then present them to the Bill Drafting Commission. In such a case, the bill retains its original number, but is denoted by a letter suffix. The Senate will vote on the new bill within 60 days after its introduction.
Bills are classified according to their purpose. Some affect the public as a whole, while others are designed for specific individuals and entities. Immigration, naturalization, and claims against the United States are all examples of private bills. Senators refer to their bills as ‘S.’ and assign them a number. They must have the support of both houses to pass a bill, and they must also receive the two-thirds vote of both chambers to make it a law.
The Senate consists of 100 Members, two senators from each state. The process of selecting a senator was changed by the 17th Amendment, but the criteria remain the same. Candidates must be thirty years old, a U.S. citizen for at least nine years, and a resident of their state when elected. One-third of the entire Senate is elected every two years. If a tie is reached, the Vice President’s vote is decisive.
After the first reading, a bill has to pass both houses. It must be identical in wording in order to be considered a law. If the two chambers can’t agree on a bill, the Senate will appoint a conference committee. If the conference committee cannot come to a consensus, a new committee is formed. Once the conference committee has finished work, the bill is sent to the governor for final approval.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The justices meet at least twice a week, and the majority opinion is circulated for comment. Usually, all justices concur with the majority opinion, but in rare cases, one or more may change sides. The majority opinion presents the Court’s ruling and reasons for it. The majority’s reasoning builds on prior decisions, which is known as stare decisis. Justices who do not agree with the majority’s reasoning write a dissenting or concurring opinion. Most decisions are handed down during the last few weeks of the term.
Conservative groups see Kavanaugh as a fifth vote in destroying the social fabric of the United States. Libertarians, for example, are dissatisfied with worker protections and would prefer a more laissez-faire economy. These advocates emphasize the constitutional protection of property rights and personal responsibility. They also oppose taxes for public services. The Supreme Court’s decisions are affecting millions of ordinary Americans. They affect us every day.
While the Supreme Court has a wide range of powers, it has been particularly powerful. It has struck down 32 federal laws between 1994 and 2002, and has a more assertive role in governing the nation. Critics of the Court’s increasing influence are often harsh. For example, retired Justice Sandra Day O’Connor has expressed concern about the future of judicial independence. This court has the power to overturn a law on political or constitutional grounds.
A term of the Supreme Court lasts from the first Monday of October until late June. Each term usually lasts about eight months and involves hearing roughly 100 cases. The court receives roughly 7,000 certiorari requests annually. The number of certiorari requests has grown fivefold since World War II. The increase in certiorari requests may be related to population growth, a litigious legal culture, or increasing demand from citizens.
This branch of government has an extremely important role in American society. It has historically addressed many structural and functional questions that shape American society. Its role has been demonstrated in the case of the commerce clause, which nullified state laws that impede interstate commerce. Historically, the Court has also interpreted the Constitution’s commerce clause to uphold the power of Congress. Despite the Court’s important role in American society, the role of the judiciary cannot be overstated.
A conference committee is a joint body of representatives from both houses of Congress that reviews legislation and recommends changes. Members of the conference committee are appointed by the Speaker of the House and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and comprise three people, two of whom are members of the majority party. The Minority Party members are appointed by the Minority Leader of the respective chamber. The conference committee produces a final bill that must be approved by a majority of both chambers.
Each year, appropriation bills are passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate. They are based on a constitutional model and are considered by both houses after the House approves them. Unlike other legislation, however, appropriations bills are subject to the conference committee’s jurisdiction. The conference committee then resolves disagreements among the two houses. It also considers the budget for the next fiscal year. Ultimately, the conference committee makes federal laws.
Budget bills are often sent to the conference committee a few weeks before the next session. The members of the conference committee are usually the chairs of the respective fiscal committees, as well as the vice-chairs and ranking minority members. The conference committee does not normally deal with taxes and revenues, and its members are not formal members. The conference committee process is not formalized within the executive branch, but the meetings are public. The process is often delayed by the annual budget, which must be completed by June 15th of the year.
In 1993, a conference committee consisted of four members from each house. The majority party members made up three members of the committee, and the minority party’s members made up one member. The conference committee report must be approved by a majority of the members of each house. The original bill and any amendments must be attached to the report. A majority of all six members must sign the conference report. In the Senate, the report may be referred to the committee for its approval.
When a bill has been agreed upon in the House and Senate, the conference committee is formed to negotiate the differences between the two pieces of legislation. The committee members are appointed by the majority leaders in the two chambers. The conference committee takes a bill and works out the differences between the two versions, sending it back to the chambers for a final vote. Once approved, conference committee reports cannot be amended. Thus, they are “take it or leave it” votes.